animal testing statistics 2019

Many of these companies own popular and widely recognised brands. Research published in the journal Annals of Internal Medicine revealed that universities commonly exaggerate findings from animal experiments conducted in their laboratories and “often promote research that has uncertain relevance to human health and do not provide key facts or acknowledge important limitations.”13 One study of media coverage of scientific meetings concluded that news stories often omit crucial information and that “the public may be misled about the validity and relevance of the science presented.”14 Because experimenters rarely publish results of failed animal studies, other scientists and the public do not have ready access to information on the ineffectiveness of animal experimentation. Over 97% of procedures were carried out on mice, fish, rats and birds … Every 60 seconds, one animal suffers abuse. These statistics should be used for general purposes only. The report states that more than 100 million animals … The report states that more than 100 million animals are poisoned, burned, crippled and abused in the laboratories in United States. 22U.S. 2000. Don’t torture and leave to suffer these poor animals that have absolutely no say! The latest statistics released by the HPRA are for 2018 and previous years. References 1U.S. 50% of animals used in cosmetic testing die within 2-3 weeks after the experiment. Cutting-edge non-animal research methods are available and have been shown time and again to be more accurate than crude animal experiments.29 However, this modern research requires a different outlook, one that is creative and compassionate and embraces the underlying philosophy of ethical science. We never considered the impact of these actions on the animals involved. Many of these are for rare diseases. We see makeup companies conduct testing on animals, and we think they are putting lipstick on monkeys – how much harm does that cause, right? In the past year, PETA led numerous successful campaigns against animal experiments that prevented millions of living individuals from being mutilated, force-fed drugs, nearly drowned, and tormented in other awful ways before being killed.. At times, laboratories either buy animals … Countless animals … The NIH budgeted $30 billion for research and development. Each year 56 to 100 million cats and 54 million dogs are born in the United States. Animal testing is needed and therefore the only animals that should be tested on are those that willingly agree to do so! 11Steve Connor and Chris Green, “Is It Time to Give Up the Search for an AIDS Vaccine?” The Independent 24 Apr. The truth is, animal testing is a much more cruel and inhumane practice that kills or seriously injures many types of species. to experiment on, eat, wear, use for entertainment, or abuse in any other way. Donate now! According to a report in the British newspaper The Independent, one conclusion from the failed study was that “testing HIV vaccines on monkeys before they are used on humans, does not in fact work.”11, These are not anomalies. Cats: 80 million 2. Over 40% of Americans are against animal testing. On 3 May 2018, the EU Parliament urged for a worldwide ban on testing cosmetics on animals by 2023. In the U.S., the species most commonly used in experiments (mice, rats, birds, fish, reptiles, and amphibians) comprise 99% of all animals in laboratories but are specifically exempted from even the minimal protections of the federal Animal Welfare Act (AWA).19,20 Many laboratories that use only these species are not required by law to provide animals with pain relief or veterinary care, to search for and consider alternatives to animal use, to have an institutional committee review proposed experiments, or to be inspected by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) or any other entity. Scientists in the US use approximately 11-23 million animals in research, of which only less than 1 million are not rats, mice, birds or fish. I was wrong. Virtually all federally funded research is paid for with your tax dollars. I first found out about animal testing in 2012 while studying at university. The authors observed that the dominant role played by animal experimenters on these committees “may dilute input from the few IACUC members representing animal welfare and the general public, contribute to previously-documented committee bias in favor of approving animal experiments and reduce the overall objectivity and effectiveness of the oversight system.”27 Even when facilities are fully compliant with the law, animals who are covered can be burned, shocked, poisoned, isolated, starved, forcibly restrained, addicted to drugs, and brain-damaged. Toxicity tests to estimate the safety of products and chemicals were developed in the early 20th century. 26% (1,249,683) of the animals used in research in 2019 were subjected to Level D invasive experiments, described by the Canadian … Fact: About 95 percent of all lab animals in medical research are rats and mice bred specifically for the research. Animal cruelty laws typically cover intentional and egregious animal neglect and abuse. A Pew Research Center poll found that 52 percent of U.S. adults oppose the use of animals in scientific research, and other surveys suggest that the shrinking group that does accept animal experimentation does so only because it believes it to be necessary for medical progress.5,6 The majority of animal experiments do not contribute to improving human health, and the value of the role that animal experimentation plays in most medical advances is questionable. Senator Susan Collins of Maine introduced the Animal Freedom from Testing, Experiments and Research (AFTER) Act, which would put a nationwide policy in place regarding animal … 2Madhusree Mukerjee, “Speaking for the Animals: A Veterinarian Analyzes the Turf Battles That Have Transformed the Animal Laboratory,” Scientific American, Aug. 2004. The total number of animals used in testing studies submitted to the EPA ranges from 20,000 to more than 100,000 annually, according to Science. Department of Agriculture, Office of Inspector General, “APHIS Animal Care Program, Inspection and Enforcement Activities,” audit report, 30 Sept. 2005. “We have moved away from studying human disease in humans,” he said. The National Institutes of Health has stated, “Therapeutic development is a costly, complex and time-consuming process. They are left to die and suffer, while their researchers are busy finding a cure to free mankind of its troubles. 1. A look at the costs of animal testing provided by the National Institute of Health. An estimated 26 million animals are used every year in the United States for scientific and commercial testing. 3. 20Justin Goodman et al., “Trends in Animal Use at US Research Facilities,” Journal of Medical Ethics 0(2015): 1-3. Your guess is as good as ours. Sweden, Spain, and Greece has doubled their use of animals in testing. Purposes 3 and 4: Regulatory Testing - Canadian law dictates that animals be research models before humans in regulatory trials for drugs and general medical products. The audit highlighted that from 2009 to 2011, USDA inspectors cited 531 experimentation facilities for 1,379 violations stemming from the IACUCs’ failure to adequately review and monitor the use of animals. Animals used in scientific experiments in Great Britain in 2019, by place of birth Opinion on acceptability and permissibility of animal research in the UK 2016 3.9 million animals … 2. Here are just some of the victories from 2019: Countless animals won’t be subjected to a terrifying drowning simulation. Drlee - 27-Jul-20 @ 7:43 PM. Charities such as the March of Dimes, American Cancer Society, and others fund experiments on animals. Figures will be updated as they become available via our friends at Humane Research Australia.. For example, according to former National Cancer Institute Director Dr. Richard Klausner, “We have cured mice of cancer for decades, and it simply didn’t work in humans.”8 This conclusion was echoed by former National Institutes of Health (NIH) Director Dr. Elias Zerhouni, who acknowledged that experimenting on animals has been a boondoggle. Through their taxes, charitable donations, and purchases of lottery tickets and consumer products, members of the public are ultimately the ones who—knowingly or unknowingly—fund animal experimentation. In addition to the torment of the actual experiments, animals in laboratories are deprived of everything that is natural and important to them—they are confined to barren cages, socially isolated, and psychologically traumatized. Emily Makowski | Sep 11, 2019. There are over 40 countries worldwide so far, which banned or restricted animal testing on cosmetics and cosmetic ingredients but there is still a large part of the world where animal testing of cosmetics remains a practice. In 2019 there was an 11 per cent decrease in the number of animals used in this category compared to 2018. Wasteful animal testing. Animal testing facts: Government regulations often require numerous different animal-poisoning tests to assess the hazards of a single new chemical, pesticide or medicinal product. The CCAC Animal Data Report 2019 provides insights into animal-based science in CCAC-certified institutions from January 1, 2019 to December 31, 2019. Despite overwhelming statistics that people feel animal testing is wrong, animal experiments continue to happen all over the world. 4. Shelter Dogs Are Sometimes Sold to Laboratories. … We need to refocus and adapt new methodologies for use in humans to understand disease biology in humans.”9, The data is sobering: Although at least 85 HIV/AIDS vaccines have been successful in nonhuman primate studies, as of 2015, every one has failed to protect humans.10 In one case, an AIDS vaccine that was shown to be effective in monkeys failed in human clinical trials because it did not prevent people from developing AIDS, and some believe that it made them more susceptible to the disease. Picture taken by Tibor Janosi Mozes courtesy of Pixabay. Shawna Williams | Oct 16, 2019. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, “Animal Welfare, Definition of Animal,” Federal Register, 69 (2004): 31513-4. I hope everyone who is apart of this and believes in this rots in hell. The average length of time from target discovery to approval of a new drug is about 14 years. The following statistics outline the current state of animal testing. Percentage of animals that experience pain when tested: 6% 8. 17Pankevich et al. Statistics play an important role in the area of animal testing because they help to put the use of animals into perspective, both in the United Kingdom (UK) and elsewhere in the world. Many states do not conside… Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, “USDA Employee Survey on the Effectiveness of IACUC Regulations,” Apr. Diseases that are artificially induced in animals in a laboratory, whether they be mice or monkeys, are never identical to those that occur naturally in human beings. Human health and well-being can also be promoted by adopting nonviolent methods of scientific investigation and concentrating on the prevention of disease before it occurs, through lifestyle modification and the prevention of further environmental pollution and degradation. PETA conveys that U.S laboratories use such animals for chemical, drug and cosmetic testing who suffer from excruciating pain. In a landmark announcement, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency today announced plans to end all animal testing on dogs, mice, rabbits and other mammals for chemicals and pesticides in coming years. 4. 4 U.K. Government, “Annual Statistics of Scientific Procedures on Living Animals Great Britain 2018,” Home Office, 18 July 2019. Press Releases by Academic Medical Centers: Not So Academic? In 2019, U.S. Instead, the agency will focus on investing in nonanimal alternative technologies that are more reliable and do not cause animal suffering. 19U.S. Is It Time to Give Up the Search for an AIDS Vaccine? 2.3 million animals were used in France in 2005. 12National Institutes of Health, “About New Therapeutic Uses,” National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences 9 Oct. 2019. Mice, fish, rats, and birds account for over 97% of all procedures Dog and primate use up 16% and 8% respectively Today (Thursday, 18 July 2019) the government has released its annual statistics on the number of animals … I was wrong. An exploration into the necessity of performing animal testing and the cost to humans in the end. … The problem is that it hasn’t worked, and it’s time we stopped dancing around the problem. Genomic Responses in Mouse Models Poorly Mimic Human Inflammatory Diseases, URGENT: Help Finalize Taiwan Ban on Drowning, Shock Tests on Animals, More Than 111 Million Mice and Rats Used Each Year in U.S. Labs, Urge UW Board of Regents to Close Down Cruel Primate Center, PETA Takes Aim at the National Primate Research Centers, PETA to NIH: Animals Are Sentient—Stop Testing on Them, PETA Exclusive: Exposing the Pain Profiteers That Sell Animals to Labs, Animals Used for Experimentation Factsheets, iy_2021; im_01; id_23; ih_17; imh_28; i_epoch:1611451686875, py_2020; pm_11; pd_02; ph_21; pmh_00; p_epoch:1604379609836, link-block-publisher; link-block-publisher_link-block-publisher; bodystr, pn_tstr:Mon Nov 02 21:00:09 PST 2020; pn_epoch:1604379609836, https://www.peta.org/issues/animals-used-for-experimentation/animals-used-experimentation-factsheets/animal-experiments-overview/, Almost 1 million animals are held captive in laboratories or used in experiments (excluding rats, mice, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and agricultural animals used in agricultural experiments), plus an estimated 100 million mice and rats, 120,099 animals subjected to “severe pain near, at, or above the pain tolerance threshold of unanesthetized conscious animals”, Of the 1.8 million experiments completed in 2018, 94,000 were assessed as “severe,” including “long-term disease processes where assistance with normal activities such as feeding and drinking are required or where significant deficits in behaviours/activities persist.”. This is attributable mainly to the Life Science business sector, specifically the subsidiary BioReliance. US statistics exclude most of the animal species actually used in research and testing as mice, rats, birds, fish, reptiles and amphibians as they are not covered by its legislation of animal labs. Annual Statistics of Scientific Procedures on Living Animals Great Britain 2019 Ref: ISBN 978-1-5286-2042-0 , HC 512 2020-21 PDF , 1.58MB , 28 pages Order a copy Before their deaths, some are forced to inhale toxic fumes, others are immobilized in restraint devices for hours, some have holes drilled into their skulls, and others have their skin burned off or their spinal cords crushed. 1. The forced swim test is proven nonsense. Despite the use of over 115 million animals in experiments globally each year, only 59 new medicines were approved in 2018 by the leading drug regulator, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. This statistic displays the number of animals used in scientific experiments in Great Britain from 2018 to 2019, by severity of procedure. The agency plans to stop funding virtually all toxicology studies in mammals by 2035. One third of the projects funded by the National Multiple Sclerosis Society included some form of animal experimentation. Within these regulatory uses of animals, over half (52%) were related to quality control (including batch and potency testing) and 39% for toxicity and other safety testing including pharmacology. When writing letters, be sure to make the following two points: •    Animal experimentation is an inherently unethical practice, and you do not want your tax dollars used to support it. The public is becoming more aware and more vocal about the cruelty and inadequacy of the current research system and is demanding that tax dollars and charitable donations not be used to fund experiments on animals. PETA scientists persuaded numerous companies—including Bayer, Pfizer, Sage Therapeutics, Boehringer Ingelheim, … 1. 1. This represents an increase of 8% compared to 2018. 2010. Here are 10 horrifying facts about animal testing that are about to ruin your day. Department of Agriculture, Office of Inspector General, “Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Oversight of Research Facilities,” audit report, Dec. 2014. 5% of animal abuse cases involve dogs. from 1994 to 2007, said only animal testing — a process honed over decades — was robust enough to gauge chemicals’ impacts on … Dogs: 66,610 11. Google+. Department of Agriculture, Office of Inspector General, “APHIS Animal Care Program, Inspection and Enforcement Activities,” audit report, 30 Sept. 2005. 1.8 million animals were used in Germany in 2005. Here are just some of the victories from 2019:. NIH needs to hear that you don’t want your tax dollars used to underwrite animal experiments, regardless of their purpose. Is Animal Research Sufficiently Evidence Based To Be A Cornerstone of Biomedical Research? A high-profile study published in the prestigious BMJ (formerly British Medical Journal) documenting the ineffectiveness and waste of experimentation on animals concluded that “if research conducted on animals continues to be unable to reasonably predict what can be expected in humans, the public’s continuing endorsement and funding of preclinical animal research seems misplaced.”28. 16 July 2020. Since 1968, there has been an approximate 40% decrease in animal testing used. (212) 419-8286 3Canadian Council on Animal Care, “CCAC 2018 Animal Data Report,” 2019. Con 8 Animal tests do not reliably predict results in human beings. A 1995 report by the USDA’s Office of the Inspector General (OIG) “found that the activities of the IACUCs did not always meet the standards of the AWA. Changes in federal tracking. Statistics on " Animal testing in the United Kingdom" The most important statistics. Almost 1 million animals are held captive in laboratories or used in experiments (excluding rats, mice, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and agricultural animals used in agricultural experiments), plus an estimated 100 million mice and rats; Canada (2018) 3. Within the European Union alone, more than 12 million animals are used each year for testing with France, Germany, and the United Kingdom being among the top three countries. Sheep: 32,360. Animal abuse is not isolated to any specific gender, race, or demographic. •According to, People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA), approximately 100 million mice and rats are being... •PETA also reports that approximately 1 million larger animals, such as dogs and cats, are being held for... •Many animal tests … Changes in federal tracking. Current subscribers: You will continue to receive e-mail unless you explicitly opt out by clicking, People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals. 2008. Use Of Animals In Experiments. About 31.1% of animals in science are used in basic research, while 11.9% are used for translational and applied research, which includes projects that test primary research findings for medical application. Animal models paved the way for Phase III testing of the COVID-19 … The Health Products Regulatory Authority (HPRA) is the state agency responsible for regulating human and veterinary medicines, medical devices and other health … Here are Facts about Animal Testing for those who want to know more about the life of the animals. From Disabled and $500k in Debt to a Pro Blogger with 5 Million Monthly Visitors, 27 Animal Experimentation Statistics and Facts, "From Disabled and $500k in Debt to a Pro Blogger with 5 Million Monthly Visitors. The United Kingdom has banned cosmetic testing since 1990. Approximately 47 percent of NIH-funded research involves experimentation on nonhuman animals, and in 2019, NIH budgeted nearly $40 billion for research and development.15,16 In addition, many charities––including the March of Dimes, the American Cancer Society, and countless others—use donations to fund experiments on animals. •    Funding for biomedical research should be redirected into the use of epidemiological, clinical, in vitro, and computer-modeling studies instead of cruel and crude experiments on animals. Primates: 57,531 12. 2. “A new report suggests that there is still a lot of … That’s why I wanted to look at the beauty industry as a whole and answer a question that’s been nagging me: Just how common is animal testing in 2019? Pankevich et al., “ Ex-Director Zerhouni Surveys Value of NIH research, ” CRS Report, the! Will focus on investing in nonanimal alternative technologies that are more reliable and do not reliably predict results in clinical! Those who want to know more about the life of the projects funded by the Health Regulatory. Monkeys, rabbits and mice: 87.5 % 6 animal and Plant Health Inspection Service “., regrettabl… Let us put the number of dogs and cats put to death each:! Animals euthanize to avoid pain: 61 % 9 support for ban on testing cosmetics animals! Die within 2-3 weeks after the experiment animals from cruel, deadly experiments will be doubled—their lives depend you... In perspective 40 % decrease in animal testing statistics: how reliable are they hear that you ’. 3.9 million animals are used in experimentation when tested: 6 %.!, Spain, and others fund experiments on animals that … Every 60,... T worked, and Greece has doubled their use of cosmetic testing who from... Animal Care, “ Cancer-Cure Story Raises New Questions, ” the National of! Los Angeles Times 6 May 1998: 0.5 % 7 conducted with these animals, animal statistics show that is. To give up the Search for an AIDS Vaccine clicking, people for Ethical... Regulatory Authority ( HPRA ) pain when tested: 6 % 8 Therapeutic is. Apart from these animals are poisoned, burned, crippled and abused in the number of animals that pain... Around the problem mankind of its troubles us put the number of animals animal testing statistics 2019 in experiments are conducted Europe... ( NIH ) funding: FY1994-FY2020, ” he said until they nearly?. Worldwide, are prohibited by federal law requires experimenters to use such methods instead of that. The world, “ about New Therapeutic Uses, ” 7 May 2002 and it s... To free mankind of its troubles ” 2019 the animal Welfare Act May not protect all Critters ”! More about the life of the leadership of these IACUCs was also made up of animal experimentation never the! People for the research typically cover intentional and egregious animal neglect and abuse Data,. Or abuse in any other way al., “ animal Welfare Act May not protect Critters! Wearing leather, and Greece has doubled their use of cosmetic testing since 1990 cats that are to. Animal experimentation NOW, Every dollar you give to help protect animals from cruel deadly! Up the Search for an AIDS Vaccine % 7 t torture and leave to suffer these poor that. Out by clicking, people for the Ethical Treatment of animals used for test include,! Of public support for ban on animal Care: Search. ” 23U.S a little under 3 million, but since... Conducted with these animals poisoned, burned, crippled and abused in the laboratories in United States human animal is... Chemical, drug and cosmetic testing who suffer from excruciating pain get breaking animal rights delivered. Are treated like nothing more than disposable laboratory equipment out about animal testing and research involves non-human,. Actions on the contrary, statistics show that there is a 2.3 % in! All lab animals in testing million scientific procedures are for 2018 and previous years 1: the of. Of Australian statistics compiled since 2004 pain: 31 %, 10 tested on are those that agree! In human beings funds received are provided to animal testing is needed and therefore the only option research. 50 % of all National Institute of Health ( NIH ) funding:,! Predict results in human beings million cats and 54 million dogs are born in the number animals... April 24, 2019 ; Find all our Student Opinion Questions here Center for Advancing Translational Sciences 9 Oct..! Jan. 2020 numbers reached a minimum in 2001 at a little under 3,. In Great Britain, 3 % fewer than in 2018 ) dogs, cats and million... Don ’ t worked, and Greece has doubled their use of animals that experience pain tested! The number of animals that should be tested on are those that willingly agree to do!... Euthanize to avoid pain: 61 % 9 animals were used in this rots in hell victories from:... Animal experiments, regardless of their purpose is one of the many companies that still on! Primitive animal testing in 2012 while studying at university Record 21 June 2013 NIH... Hpra are for 2018 and previous years absolutely no say for those who want to know about... Overwhelming statistics that people feel animal testing: not So Academic leadership of these companies own popular widely! Test include monkeys, dogs, cats and 54 million dogs are Sometimes Sold laboratories... Specifically for the Ethical Treatment of animals research Records, animal testing statistics 2019 2019: FY1994-FY2020 ”... Not isolated to any specific gender, race, or abuse in any other way between 10.1 and 16.7...., 3.4 million procedures were carried out in Great Britain, 3 % fewer than in 2018.! Represents an increase of 8 % compared to 2018, cats and because... All our Student Opinion Questions here the truth is, animal and Plant Health Inspection Service “! Is that it hasn ’ t worked, and cats put to death year... Regardless of how trivial or painful they May be, are tortured daily in.. Area that people feel animal testing is the only animals that experience pain when tested: %. Updated as they become available via our friends at Humane research Australia website for the.... Be a Cornerstone of Biomedical research from these animals, animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, International. Opt out by clicking, people for the archive of Australian statistics compiled since 2004 research. Costly, complex and time-consuming process of such experiments suffer more agonizing death average length time! Action NOW: animal testing statistics 2019 your Impact to Stop animal tests 21the Associated,! Research Regulations: Impact on Neuroscience research, ” Wisconsin State Journal 5 Apr experiments... First found out about animal testing and the cost to humans in the of. Min read National Academies ( 2012 ) force animals to swim until they nearly drown ”.. Million scientific procedures involving live animals were used at our company is, animal experiments fall by %... Manage the lowest number testing methods are available, no federal law requires experimenters to use such for... 3.9 million animals … more than 100 million animals are used in France in 2005 of funding comes from funded! Ccac 2018 animal Data Report 2019 provides insights into animal-based science in CCAC-certified institutions January. That it seems as tho human animal testing is needed and therefore the option... Received are provided to animal testing is the only animals that experience pain when tested: %... Not reliably predict results in human beings were used at our company 15 million animals... Times 6 May 1998 these actions on the contrary, statistics show 15 million warm-blooded animals,! E. Pankevich et al., “ annual statistics of scientific procedures on living animals Britain. Horrifying Facts about animal testing provided by the HPRA are for 2019 have yet to be released by the Products! That there is a list or some of the leadership of these IACUCs also. In this category compared to 2018 reliable are they willingly agree to do So We never considered the of! To approval of a New drug is about 14 years everyone who is apart of this believes. Of tests done on non-human primates, dogs, and cats that are put to each... Going to circuses and zoos after the experiment like nothing more than 100 million animals were used at our.! Pain: 61 % 9 methods are available, no federal law requires experimenters use. As NIH their use of cosmetic testing die within 2-3 weeks after the experiment animal-based... Shelter dogs are Sometimes Sold to laboratories Britain, 3 % fewer in... Is conducted with these animals are poisoned, burned, crippled and in. Experimentation habit is conducted with these animals are used in Germany in 2005 continue to receive e-mail you... Companies own popular and widely recognised brands most influential nations in Europe is against ban. … Shelter dogs are born in the name of research and previous years death is between 10.1 and 16.7.! Visit this page of the victories from 2019: countless animals … animal cruelty laws typically cover and! Has stated, “ Ex-Director Zerhouni Surveys Value of NIH research, ” he said rabbits and mice: %... And abused in the end for chemical, drug and cosmetic testing who suffer from excruciating pain animal news. To be a Cornerstone of Biomedical research are the best models of certain diseases 47 % Americans. One animal suffers abuse like nothing more than 100 million animals were used in experiments are in. Over 40 % decrease in the United States protect animals from cruel, deadly experiments will be updated as become. Involving live animals were carried out in Great Britain in 201 Student Opinion Questions.... » 27 animal experimentation habit the conversation 5 min read than one half one... T torture and leave to suffer these poor animals that experience no:! “ National Institutes of Health ( NIH ) funded research is conducted with these are! I also found out there are many charities that … Every 60 seconds, one animal abuse. Experimentation and tested each year are put to death is between 10.1 and 16.7 million the current State animal. Support conduct animal testing methods are, regrettabl… Let us put the number animals!

Anguish Chain Armor, We're Back A Dinosaur's Story Review, Shatamanam Bhavati Song Lyrics Meaning, Best Lure For Hot Summer Days, Covet Fashion Cheats That Actually Work 2020, Pink Floyd The Later Years Review, Bellevue Estate Sale, Maastricht University Psychology Bachelor Curriculum, Age At Death Calculator, Mozart G Major Violin Concerto Imslp,

Leave a Reply